Meeting Educational Goals

As an engine for performing transformations, operations, and analyses, GIS displays its full power for supporting spatial thinking. The earliest GIS was developed in response to the need to make accurate measurements of the size, shape, and characteristics of areas from large numbers of paper maps(Foresman, 1998), a task that is inaccurate, tedious, and expensive when performed by hand. This vision of a GIS as a calculating machine dominated thinking well into the 1990s, and by that time, a vast array of techniques had been implemented, either as part of the basic G1S products offered by vendors or as extensions developed by users. Several texts describe the advanced analytic capabilities of GIS (Burrough and MacDonnell, 1998; Fotheringham and Rogerson, 1994; Lee and Wong, 2001). In principle, there is no limit to the range of functions that can be implemented in a GIS, but in practice, priorities are established by the demands of different user communities.

There have been several efforts to systematize the often overwhelming range of functions and to make it easier for users to navigate through them. These efforts range from simplifying schema to interface formats. Tomlin (1990) devised a schema termed cartographic modeling that has been widely adopted as the basis for spatial querying and analysis, despite the fact that it is limited in scope to operations on raster data. The schema classifies GIS transformations into four classes and is used in several raster GIS as the basis for their analysis languages: (I) local operations, which examine rasters cell by cell; (2) focal operations, which compare the value in each cell with the values in its proximate cells; (3) global operations, which produce results that are true of the entire layer, such as its mean value; and (4) zonal operations, which compute results for blocks of contiguous cells that share the same value. The development of so called WIMP interfaces-based on windows, icons, menus, and pointers has also helped user interaction, allowing spatial query. ing and analysis through pointing, clicking, and dragging windows and icons (Egenhofer and Kuhn 1999; Figure 8.3).

Nonetheless, navigating through the multitude of capabilities of a modem GIS remains challenging, especially given the lack of a standard nomenclature for operations. Much work remains to be done to simplify user interfaces, standardize terminology, and hide irrelevant This subsection considers the ability of G IS to meet four educational goals: (I) be supportive of the inquiry process; (2) be useful in solving problems in a wide range of real-world contexts; (3) facilitate learning transfer across a range of school subjects; and (4) provide a rich, generative, inviting, and challenging problem-solving environment for the users of the support system. After considering each goal in turn, the committee provides a summary and an overall assessment of the ability of GIS to meet the four educational goals.

Be Supportive of the Inquiry Process. Learning is a process of exploration and discovery driven by curiosity. Whether in the science or social studies classroom, the inquiry process is the same. Students are expected to ” develop questions based on their curiosity and interests; ” acquire data relevant to the questions they have asked; ” observe and explore patterns and relations within the data; ” analyze and draw inferences from observed patterns and relations; and ” generate possible answers and act upon their new understanding.

Learning things is not limited to the scentific area. Instead it also has relations with some other things like speaking a language or using software, including Rosetta Stone Japanese and Rosetta Stone Korean. If you have a creative mind, you will make all your own differences in the end!

All of our viewers, if you want to learn more of things that are related to education and language learning, just click Rosetta Stone Swedish and Rosetta Stone Polish.

Leave a Reply